• When accidents happen, don’t punish! If you actually catch your dog in the act – and I mean midstream, not one second after – it’s okay to interrupt with a clap or noise and then rush the dog outside. Be sure to reward your dog when he finishes up outside. If you discover the act afterward, even immediately afterward, don’t punish your dog. It really won’t help, and could set back the process by making your dog afraid to go in front of you. Simply clean up the accident well with an enzyme neutralizing cleaner. (See “Housetraining Puppies” for a review of the best enzyme-based cleaning agents.)


Motivational training has its roots in captive animal training, where compulsion and corrections are both difficult and dangerous, and ignoring bad behavior is not problematic as the animal lives under controlled conditions. As a dog training strategy, purely positive training is feasible, but difficult, as it requires time and patience to control the rewards the dog receives for behavior. Some activities such as jumping up or chasing squirrels are intrinsically rewarding, the activity is its own reward, and with some activities the environment may provide reinforcement such as when the response from dog next door encourages barking.[58]


Raising a well-trained dog is not hard but it does require time and patience so make sure you are ready for this undertaking. We offer solid, useful and helpful tips on every aspect of handling dogs from housebreaking puppies and basic obedience to cairng for older dogs and treating various coats. Recently the pet industry has exploded with products and services that range from simple leashes and collars to dog spas and high end fashion accessories that can make any owner dizzy with information and advice. We eliminate the clutter and confusion by providing straight forward, honest and practical tips on how to raise a well behaved, obedient and healthy dog.
Examining their stool is the best way for an owner to figure out whether it’s time for a change in diet. If your puppy is consistently producing stools that are bulky, loose, and stinky, it may be time to talk to your vet about switching to a new food. Overfeeding may also provoke a case of diarrhea, which will only make the task of housetraining that much more difficult.
The relationship between people and dogs goes back at least 15,000 years, making dogs potentially the first animal to be domesticated. In that time, dogs have played many roles and performed many jobs for their human companions. Dogs come in a startling variety of shapes and sizes, but from the giant and noble Great Dane to the tiny and tenacious Chihuahua, they are all one species with one basic history.
Dogs have become closely associated with humans through domestication and have also become sensitive to human communicative signals. Generally, they have a lot of exposure to human speech, especially during play, and are believed to have a good ability to recognize human speech. Two studies investigated the ability of a single dog that was believed to be exceptional in its understanding of language. Both studies revealed the potential for at least some dogs to develop an understanding of a large number of simple commands on the basis of just the sounds emitted by their owners. However the studies suggested that visual cues from the owner may be important for the understanding of more complex spoken commands.[77]
Wolves kill dogs wherever they are found together.[109] One study reported that in Wisconsin in 1999 more compensation had been paid for losses due to wolves taking dogs than for wolves taking livestock. In Wisconsin wolves will often kill hunting dogs, perhaps because they are in the wolf's territory.[109] A strategy has been reported from Russia where one wolf lures a dog into heavy brush where the another animal waits in ambush.[110] In some instances, wolves have displayed an uncharacteristic fearlessness of humans and buildings when attacking dogs, to the extent that they have to be beaten off or killed.[111] Although the numbers of dogs killed each year are relatively low, it induces a fear of wolves entering villages and farmyards to take dogs, and losses of dogs to wolves has lead to demands for more liberal wolf hunting regulations.[103]
Citing a 2008 study, the U.S. Center for Disease Control estimated in 2015 that 4.5 million people in the USA are bitten by dogs each year.[171] A 2015 study estimated that 1.8% of the U.S. population is bitten each year.[172] In the 1980s and 1990s the US averaged 17 fatalities per year, while in the 2000s this has increased to 26.[173] 77% of dog bites are from the pet of family or friends, and 50% of attacks occur on the property of the dog's legal owner.[173]
Tether your puppy to you or a nearby piece of furniture with a six-foot leash if you are not actively training or playing. Watch for signs that your puppy needs to go out. Some signs are obvious, such as barking or scratching at the door, squatting, restlessness, sniffing around or circling. When you see these signs, immediately grab the leash and take them outside to their bathroom spot. If they eliminate, praise them and reward with a treat.
Get an introduction to the importance of training dogs, both for owners and the dogs themselves. Through some powerful analogies, Professor Donaldson will put you in the mindset of your dog to show you why certain training methods don't work and others do. Learn the three key principles of dog training that will provide the foundation for every lesson moving forward. She'll also recommend some important tools to have on hand. x
Ready for advanced obedience training and want ideas for what to do next?  Let’s look at one option:  Fenzi TEAM Titles (http://fenziteamtitles.com). TEAM stands for Training Excellence Assessment Modules, and is made up of 6 levels of video “tests” for foundation through advanced obedience training skills.  Levels 1 – 3 are Sport Foundation, and build… Read more »
6. Don’t do too much, too soon. When training your dog, it’s important to set the stage for success. That means allowing your dog to learn and grow at a pace that’s comfortable and successful and taking your time to advance to tougher behaviors. In dog training, you’ll often hear the term, “the three D’s.” This refers to distance, duration, and distractions – all factors to consider when training your dog at an appropriate pace. Slowly increase your distance from your dog as he learns to respond to cues, slowly expect your dog to remain in position for longer duration, and gradually increase the number of distractions present during training, only advancing each of these factors once your dog has proven successful.
Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea, China[128] and Vietnam,[129] a practice that dates back to antiquity.[160] It is estimated that 13–16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year.[161] In China, debates have ensued over banning the consumption of dog meat.[162] Other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-Columbian Mexico, also consumed dog meat in their history. However, Western, South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern cultures, in general, regard consumption of dog meat as taboo. In some places, however, such as in rural areas of Poland, dog fat is believed to have medicinal properties—being good for the lungs for instance.[163] Dog meat is also consumed in some parts of Switzerland.[164] Proponents of eating dog meat have argued that placing a distinction between livestock and dogs is western hypocrisy, and that there is no difference with eating the meat of different animals.[165][166][167][168]
A general rule of thumb for how long puppies can hold their bladders: one hour for every month of age, plus one. So if a puppy is two months old, he can wait up to three hours. However, this varies from dog to dog, and a puppy should be taken out more often than his maximum hold time. I train owners to take puppies out to the bathroom every one to two hours or after any activity that stimulates elimination.
Professor Donaldson is positive and encouraging, reassuring you the whole time that training may not go perfectly. Some lectures may need to be reviewed and repeated as you learn how best your dog will learn. As a bonus, she also helped create the guidebook for this course, which will give you detailed training plans for all the behaviors once you’ve gone through the course.
If your dog has been eliminating on her bedding, change the type of bedding you use, too. If she’s been sleeping (and eliminating!) on a blanket, switch to a flat thick bed of newspaper, or a fleece pad. The idea is to create a new “living space” with no former associations for your dog as a place to eliminate. Continue to use the crate as a living space for longer periods until you have established the new confinement area as a living space.
Crate training can be an efficient and effective way to house train a dog. Dogs do not like to soil their resting/sleeping quarters if given adequate opportunity to eliminate elsewhere. Temporarily confining your dog to a small area strongly inhibits the tendency to urinate and defecate. However, there is still a far more important aspect of crate training.

To make things easier on both yourself and your dog, you should put your dog on a regular feeding schedule. What goes in on a regular schedule will come out on a regular schedule. If you know when your dog needs to empty out, then you'll know when to take her to her toilet area. Healthy adult dogs should be able to control their bladder and bowels for eight hours.
Punishment-based training methods are simply inhumane and also damage your relationship with your dog. “It’s all about the relationship,” Victoria says. “If you’re patrolling with a human partner, are you going to choke him? No, you’re not. Your partner would not work with you. You need your partner’s trust 100 percent, and you need to trust your partner.”
Off-Leash K9 Training is an off leash dog training business based in Northern Virginia; however we have locations throughout the United States. We specialize in private lessons, dog behavior consultations, and teaching the owners to understand why their dogs do the things they do. This helps create a strong bond between the owner and dog.and without the restriction of a leash.
Researchers at the DogStudies lab at the Max Planck Institute for the Science of Human History have shown that dogs possess some "metacognitive" abilities -- specifically, they are aware of when they do not have enough information to solve a problem and will actively seek more information, similarly to primates. To investigate this, the researchers created a test in which dogs had to find a reward -- a toy or food -- behind one of two fences. They found that the dogs looked for additional information significantly more often when they had not seen where the reward was hidden.

No-pull harness The no-pull harness is worn on the body of the animal. The no-pull harness differs significantly from the standard harness since it makes it harder for the dog to pull because it distributes energy over the dog's back and shoulders. Like the head collar, the no-pull harness does not teach the dog not to pull, it only makes it harder for the dog to pull.
Teaching your new puppy to potty at the right time and place is one of the most important first steps you can take for a long, happy life together. House soiling is among the top reasons why dogs lose their homes or end up in shelters. Few people are willing to put up with a dog who destroys rugs and flooring, or who leaves a stinky mess that you have to clean after a hard day at work.
Researchers have shown that dogs possess some 'metacognitive' abilities -- specifically, they are aware of when they do not have enough information to solve a problem and will actively seek more information. The researchers created a test in which dogs had to find a reward behind one of two fences. They found that the dogs looked for additional information significantly more often when they had not seen where the reward was hidden.
In addition, people with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. The results provide evidence that keeping pets may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that for guardians of dogs these effects are relatively long-term.[190] Pet guardianship has also been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival, with human guardians being significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs.[191]
Dog training is the application of behavior analysis which uses the environmental events of antecedents and consequences to modify the behavior of a dog, either for it to assist in specific activities or undertake particular tasks, or for it to participate effectively in contemporary domestic life. While training dogs for specific roles dates back to Roman times at least, the training of dogs to be compatible household pets developed with suburbanization in the 1950s.
Keeping this information in mind, you need to have the ability to determine the dog training program finest suited for your canine. Nevertheless, you might look for the viewpoint of your neighborhood canine instructors to understand much more. Numerous fitness instructors speak with completely free. So now you should be at the very least an action more detailed to introducing your dog right into a training program!
People say New York is an unfriendly place just because it’s overwhelming and every once in a while, someone might yell a curse word in your face. And by someone, I mean a friend or co-worker. But New York really can be friendly, especially to dogs and dog owners. Ichi, the little head-turner owned by Hearts & Bones dog fosterer Kyla, is a classic New York dog, the kind who helps her owner make 20 new friends every time she takes her for a walk. Also, take note of her ears: They are absolutely perfect little triangles!
During housebreaking, whenever the puppy is inside the home but cannot be watched, he is placed in the crate. This might be while you are cooking, reading to the children, or even away from the home. The last thing you do before you put the puppy in the crate is take him outside to his favorite spot. The first thing you do when you take the animal out of the crate is another trip outside. No food or water goes in the crate, just a blanket and maybe a chew toy to occupy his time. Overnight is definitely crate time. As your faith in the puppy grows, leave him out for longer and longer periods of time.
Dog meat is consumed in some East Asian countries, including Korea, China[128] and Vietnam,[129] a practice that dates back to antiquity.[160] It is estimated that 13–16 million dogs are killed and consumed in Asia every year.[161] In China, debates have ensued over banning the consumption of dog meat.[162] Other cultures, such as Polynesia and pre-Columbian Mexico, also consumed dog meat in their history. However, Western, South Asian, African, and Middle Eastern cultures, in general, regard consumption of dog meat as taboo. In some places, however, such as in rural areas of Poland, dog fat is believed to have medicinal properties—being good for the lungs for instance.[163] Dog meat is also consumed in some parts of Switzerland.[164] Proponents of eating dog meat have argued that placing a distinction between livestock and dogs is western hypocrisy, and that there is no difference with eating the meat of different animals.[165][166][167][168]
(Note: Some people worry about things that can happen to their dogs outside in their yards if the dog is unattended. The yard that is available to my dogs through my dog door is super dog-proofed and double-fenced. That said, there are more dangers to an unattended dog outdoors than indoors, but this is a risk I have taken with my dogs for many years without a problem. You may make a different choice.)
Don’t take your puppy immediately back to his confinement area, which can actually read as punishment to him. Instead, opt for a 10-minute block of supervised play in a bigger area before putting him back in the confined space. However, if your puppy does not eliminate outside, calmly place him back in his confinement area, wait 15 minutes and then try again outdoors.
The majority of contemporary dog owners describe their pet as part of the family,[142] although some ambivalence about the relationship is evident in the popular reconceptualization of the dog–human family as a pack.[142] A dominance model of dog–human relationships has been promoted by some dog trainers, such as on the television program Dog Whisperer. However it has been disputed that "trying to achieve status" is characteristic of dog–human interactions.[146] Pet dogs play an active role in family life; for example, a study of conversations in dog–human families showed how family members use the dog as a resource, talking to the dog, or talking through the dog, to mediate their interactions with each other.[147]
House training a puppy or adult dog may seem daunting, but almost any dog can be trained to wait at the door and relieve himself outside, instead of going in the house. Create a schedule for feeding your dog and taking him outside. Then, reward your dog with treats and praise when he relieves himself in the designated outdoor spot. When he makes a mess in the house, just clean it up and stick to the routine, since punishing a dog will simply make him afraid of you. Patience and a good sense of humor are all you really need to help your dog adapt to life as a pet.

In addition, people with pet dogs took considerably more physical exercise than those with cats and those without pets. The results provide evidence that keeping pets may have positive effects on human health and behaviour, and that for guardians of dogs these effects are relatively long-term.[190] Pet guardianship has also been associated with increased coronary artery disease survival, with human guardians being significantly less likely to die within one year of an acute myocardial infarction than those who did not own dogs.[191]
In one study laboratory-bred Beagles were divided into three groups. Group A received an electric shock when the dogs touched the prey (a rabbit dummy fixed to a motion device). Group H received a shock when they did not obey a previously trained recall command during hunting. Dogs in group R received the electric shock arbitrarily, i.e. the shock was administered unpredictably and out of context. Group A did not show a significant rise in salivary cortisol levels, while group R and group H did show a significant rise. This led to the conclusion that animals which were able to clearly associate the electric stimulus with their action, i.e. touching the prey, and consequently were able to predict and control the stressor, did not show considerable or persistent stress indicators, while animals that were not able to control the situation to avoid the shock did show significant stress.[62]
You know your pup is feeling all right—a game of fetch, dinner, and potty time were all accomplished—but for some reason, she’s looking at you with those puppy eyes and whining. Ellis shares that dogs can whine for a number of reasons, like boredom, anxiousness, excitement, or just wanting some attention. “The best method to end attention whining is to ignore it completely,” she says. “For some dogs, even saying ‘no’ feels rewarding because they got your attention.” When your pup does stop whining, Ellis suggests rewarding the behavior with a treat to instill that no whining means attention and whining means the fun is over. Keep a lookout for these silent signs that your dog is feeling under the weather.

Examining their stool is the best way for an owner to figure out whether it’s time for a change in diet. If your puppy is consistently producing stools that are bulky, loose, and stinky, it may be time to talk to your vet about switching to a new food. Overfeeding may also provoke a case of diarrhea, which will only make the task of housetraining that much more difficult.
We just got our new Goldendoodle and had a great trainer from Andrea Arden help us with house training and jumping. We were at our wits end with the nipping and chewing too. The trainer calmed us down and let us know that all this behavior is normal and showed us so many great ways to get control of the situation. She was really understanding and patient. Additionally, she went out of her way to assist our family beyond just the lesson. I was so pleased to find out that she purchased toys and treats to bring the next time she came. The entire experience with Lisa and the other staff was a great one. Bernie and my whole family give the entire crew a thumb and paw up!
I am a first time dog owner and needed to control my new little fury friend. The staff here is second to none, the facilities are fantastic, and my little pup loves it! He’s obedient, calm, and receptive to the training. Andrea and Jo Anne really care about the dogs and take a lot of time to make sure the little fellas are on track. Highly recommended!
Accompany your dog outside and reward her whenever she eliminates outdoors with praise and treats, play or a walk. It’s best to take your dog to the same place each time you let her outside because the smell can prompt her to eliminate where she’s eliminated before. Keep in mind that some dogs tend to eliminate right when they go outside, but others need to move around and explore for a bit first.

(Note: Some people worry about things that can happen to their dogs outside in their yards if the dog is unattended. The yard that is available to my dogs through my dog door is super dog-proofed and double-fenced. That said, there are more dangers to an unattended dog outdoors than indoors, but this is a risk I have taken with my dogs for many years without a problem. You may make a different choice.)

Motivational training has its roots in captive animal training, where compulsion and corrections are both difficult and dangerous, and ignoring bad behavior is not problematic as the animal lives under controlled conditions. As a dog training strategy, purely positive training is feasible, but difficult, as it requires time and patience to control the rewards the dog receives for behavior. Some activities such as jumping up or chasing squirrels are intrinsically rewarding, the activity is its own reward, and with some activities the environment may provide reinforcement such as when the response from dog next door encourages barking.[58]

7. If you are away from your home for extended periods of time during the day, you must have a plan for getting your dog to his potty spot in your absence. Sometimes it takes a village to housetrain a dog, with friends, family, and neighbors, perhaps assisted by professional pet sitters, dog walkers, or trainers helping with the potty outing shifts.
Consider what this obviously anxious dog has to deal with: a groomer who thinks he’s a freak, and a demanding mother who at one point says, “You’re a Standard Poodle, for God’s sake. You’ll be all right.” Rider’s only crime is that he just wants to get the hell out of this grooming expo and go home with his mom. He’s basically a walking episode of Toddlers & Tiaras. Plus, the fact that he’s been dubbed “kind of a weirdo” immediately puts him in the top ten.

We just got our new Goldendoodle and had a great trainer from Andrea Arden help us with house training and jumping. We were at our wits end with the nipping and chewing too. The trainer calmed us down and let us know that all this behavior is normal and showed us so many great ways to get control of the situation. She was really understanding and patient. Additionally, she went out of her way to assist our family beyond just the lesson. I was so pleased to find out that she purchased toys and treats to bring the next time she came. The entire experience with Lisa and the other staff was a great one. Bernie and my whole family give the entire crew a thumb and paw up!

A crate, portable exercise pen, or small room equipped with a baby gate, so you can create an appropriate confinement area for your dog. This will prevent unwanted accidents from occurring. Preventing unwanted accidents ensures our dogs don’t rehearse pottying in inappropriate places and keeps the non-potty places from becoming infused with those potty scents that can trigger a dog into making a mistake.
Crate Training: The second popular method of housebreaking involves the use of a crate or cage. Make sure the crate isn't too large - just big enough to fit their sleeping blanket or mat. Dogs do not like to soil their beds because they would be forced to lay in the mess. Crate training encourages puppies to control their bladder and bowels. During the daytime, puppies 4 months of age or less only have control for a few hours, although during the nighttime it can be longer.

Puppies cannot hold their bladders and bowels for more than a few hours. Even the most intelligent and well-intentioned puppy has to wait until its muscles develop before it can exercise appropriate bladder and bowel control, just like a human infant. If you must be away for more than two or three hours, and you are training the puppy to eliminate outdoors, you will need someone to help by walking the puppy for you.
A dog might be reliably housetrained until a major change happens in her household, such as the addition of a disliked individual or the permanent departure of a favored family member. Dogs who soil because of anxiety tend to eliminate on furniture, beds or sofas-areas that smell strongly of particular people or other animals. Sometimes a dog will become the target of another household animal’s aggression, which might cause anxiety and limit the dog’s access to places to eliminate.
Stax, the goldendoodle who’s been trained to act as a service animal, was already adorable enough. But pair him with his new best friend — a sweet little girl named Meghan with a condition called VACTERL, which makes it difficult for her to maintain balance — and he grows at least six times cuter that day. With a harness that comes with a handle for Meghan to hold on to, Stax not only keeps her steady, but it’s obvious right away that he makes her very happy. I mean, look at them. They are so precious I can’t even deal.
We’re all suckers for cute puppies, and they’re just as excited to jump on us to receive the attention we give them. It may seem rude, but it’s important to tell everyone your fur baby comes into contact with that your pup is in training and they should only pay attention to him/her when they have settled down with all four paws on the floor. “When a new person wants to greet my puppy I ask my puppy to sit (or stand) and then offer them treats while the person is petting them,” says Hartstein. Here are 13 amazing facts you never knew about your pooch.
To make things easier on both yourself and your dog, you should put your dog on a regular feeding schedule. What goes in on a regular schedule will come out on a regular schedule. If you know when your dog needs to empty out, then you'll know when to take her to her toilet area. Healthy adult dogs should be able to control their bladder and bowels for eight hours.
Don't punish your dog for eliminating in the house. If you find a soiled area, it's too late to administer a correction. Do nothing but clean it up. Rubbing your dog's nose in it, taking him to the spot and scolding him, or any other type of punishment, will only make him afraid of you or afraid to eliminate in your presence. Animals don't understand punishment after the fact, even if it's only seconds later. Punishment will do more harm than good.
Allow the dog to continue using the puppy pads while you establish a cue word that means it's time for her to relieve herself, such as "Toilet" or "Get busy." Once she is using the pad in response to a command, you can slowly move the pad, inch by inch, as the days go by, to a different location, while instructing her that this is where you want her to toilet with your command. Now, keep a pad on you and place it on the desired toilet spot outside. Give her cue words, and when she goes, make a huge fuss of her. Then scatter a small amount of soil or grass or whatever substrate is your choice onto the pad. Gradually remove the pad.

Did you know there are five kinds of barking? Professor Donaldson examines the various reasons dogs bark and provides suggestions to train your dog out of this behavior. She also explains why this is one of the more frustrating areas to train, but by understanding the motivation for barking and applying consistent methods, you can more effectively and efficiently learn to work with ways to stop it. x
Many adult rescue dogs come with imperfect housetraining skills–or none at all–and even dogs who were potty trained in their previous homes sometimes need a refresher course if they didn’t get regular walks at the shelter. The good news is it’s fairly easy to teach an old dog this new trick. In fact, adult dogs are easier and faster to housetrain than puppies, especially if you use a crate.
Once your dog consistently eliminates in her toilet area and stops soiling her den, then you can start extending her den to the rest of your house. Begin by giving her access to one room at a time, but only when you know without a doubt that her bladder and bowels are completely empty. Let her eat, sleep and play in this room but only when she can be supervised. When you cannot supervise her, either confine her to her bed in that room, or put her back in her den. Once she accepts this room as an extension of her den, then go on to the next room.
We expect dogs to bark when they’re excited or if someone knocks on the door, but a vacuum or hair dryer? Why would they bark at an inanimate object? Donna Culbert, dog trainer, CPDT-KA, and owner of Donna’s Do Right Dogs, says barking is also a way dogs communicate fear. “Dogs typically bark at vacuum cleaners and blow dryers because they make loud noises and they move. Sometimes your dog’s prey drive kicks and he must hunt down the Dyson in the living room! Slow desensitization will help your dog acclimate to it,” Culbert says. To do this, leave the object (unplugged and powered off) in a room with treats sprinkled around it and let your pooch investigate it on its own time. Then, pick up the object and move it around, away from your dog, giving treats for calm behavior. Next, turn the object on, but keep it stationary. Once your dog has accepted the object under all those circumstances, reward them for calm behavior and you should be able to use the object without any barking.
Here’s what I like about Herman, the canine cotton ball that Kenichi snips into shape in that Groom Expo West contest: He’s super-chill even though you can tell that he’s already had it with the American judge who can’t understand the way Kenichi pronounces Herman. Watch him during that fun little misunderstanding — he won’t even give that woman a glance.

This training program is about 8 to 10 weeks long, and is suggested for those that have finished their intermediate training. Below, they are also trained to stroll beside their owners without a chain. Additionally, it slowly prepares the pet dog to take the Canine Great Person training program. The Pooch Great Citizen training for dogs is the last training course. To pass this course, your pet dog will be instructed the 10 necessary elements.

Don’t punish your dog for accidents you haven’t seen. Clean up thoroughly so they’re not drawn to the same place by the smell of residual poop or urine. If you catch your dog having an accident, startle them midstream with a shout or clap, then hustle them outside to finish. Praise them when they’re done so they learn that eliminating outside isn’t just allowed, it’s rewarded.
Additionally, scents and odors from other pets in the new home may stimulate some initial urine marking. Remember that you and your new dog need some time to learn each other's signals and routines. Even if he was housetrained in his previous home, if you don't recognize his bathroom signal, you might miss his request to go out, causing him to eliminate indoors.
In one study laboratory-bred Beagles were divided into three groups. Group A received an electric shock when the dogs touched the prey (a rabbit dummy fixed to a motion device). Group H received a shock when they did not obey a previously trained recall command during hunting. Dogs in group R received the electric shock arbitrarily, i.e. the shock was administered unpredictably and out of context. Group A did not show a significant rise in salivary cortisol levels, while group R and group H did show a significant rise. This led to the conclusion that animals which were able to clearly associate the electric stimulus with their action, i.e. touching the prey, and consequently were able to predict and control the stressor, did not show considerable or persistent stress indicators, while animals that were not able to control the situation to avoid the shock did show significant stress.[62]
The health benefits of dogs can result from contact with dogs in general, and not solely from having dogs as pets. For example, when in the presence of a pet dog, people show reductions in cardiovascular, behavioral, and psychological indicators of anxiety.[192] Other health benefits are gained from exposure to immune-stimulating microorganisms, which, according to the hygiene hypothesis, can protect against allergies and autoimmune diseases. The benefits of contact with a dog also include social support, as dogs are able to not only provide companionship and social support themselves, but also to act as facilitators of social interactions between humans.[193] One study indicated that wheelchair users experience more positive social interactions with strangers when they are accompanied by a dog than when they are not.[194] In 2015, a study found that pet owners were significantly more likely to get to know people in their neighborhood than non-pet owners.[195]
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